One: Salutation to Dharma, Artha and Kama

One:  Salutation to Dharma, Artha and Kama
Untitled Document

 




IN the literature of all countries there will be found a certain
number of works treating especially of love. Everywhere the subject is
dealt with differently, and from various points of view. In the
present publication it is proposed to give a complete translation of
what is considered the standard work on love in Sanscrit literature,
and which is called the `Vatsyayana Kama Sutra', or Aphorisms on Love,
by Vatsyayana.

While the introduction will deal with the evidence concerning the date
of the writing, and the commentaries written upon it, the chapters
following the introduction will give a translation of the work itself.
It is, however, advisable to furnish here a brief analysis of works of
the same nature, prepared by authors who lived and wrote years after
Vatsyayana had passed away, but who still considered him as the great
authority, and always quoted him as the chief guide to Hindoo erotic
literature.

Besides the treatise of Vatsyayana the following works on the same
subject are procurable in India:
The Ratirahasya, or secrets of love
The Panchasakya, or the five arrows
The Smara Pradipa, or the light of love
The Ratimanjari, or the garland of love
The Rasmanjari, or the sprout of love



The Anunga Runga, or the stage of love; also called



Kamaledhiplava, or a boat in the ocean of love.




The author of the `Secrets of Love' was a poet named Kukkoka. He
composed his work to please one Venudutta, who was perhaps a king.
When writing his own name at the end of each chapter he calls himself
`Siddha patiya pandita', i.e. an ingenious man among learned men. The
work was translated into Hindi years ago, and in this the author's
name was written as Koka. And as the same name crept into all the
translations into other languages in India, the book became generally
known, and the subject was popularly called Koka Shastra, or doctrines
of Koka, which is identical with the Kama Shastra, or doctrines of
love, and the words Koka Shastra and Kama Shastra are used
indiscriminately.


The work contains nearly eight hundred verses, and is divided into ten
chapters, which are called Pachivedas. Some of the things treated of
in this work are not to be found in the Vatsyayana, such as the four
classes of women, the Padmini, Chitrini, Shankini and Hastini, as also
the enumeration of the days and hours on which the women of the
different classes become subject to love, The author adds that he
wrote these things from the opinions of Gonikaputra and Nandikeshwara,
both of whom are mentioned by Vatsyayana, but their works are not now
extant. It is difficult to give any approximate idea as to the year in
which the work was composed. It is only to be presumed that it was
written after that of Vatsyayana, and previous to the other works on
this subject that are still extant. Vatsyayana gives the names of ten
authors on the subject, all of whose works he had consulted, but none
of which are extant, and does not mention this one. This would tend to
show that Kukkoka wrote after Vatsya, otherwise Vatsya would assuredly
have mentioned him as an author in this branch of literature along
with the others.


The author of the `Five Arrows' was one Jyotirisha. He is called the
chief ornament of poets, the treasure of the sixty-four arts, and the
best teacher of the rules of music. He says that he composed the work
after reflecting on the aphorisms of love as revealed by the gods, and
studying the opinions of Gonikaputra, Muladeva, Babhravya, Ramtideva,
Nundikeshwara and Kshemandra. It is impossible to say whether he had
perused all the works of these authors, or had only heard about them;
anyhow, none of them appear to be in existence now. This work contains
nearly six hundred verses, and is divided into five chapters, called
Sayakas or Arrows.

The author of the `Light of Love' was the poet Gunakara, the son of
Vechapati. The work contains four hundred verses, and gives only a
short account of the doctrines of love, dealing more with other
matters.

`The Garland of Love' is the work of the famous poet Jayadeva, who
said about himself that he is a writer on all subjects. This treatise
is, however, very short, containing only one hundred and twenty-five
verses.

The author of the `Sprout of Love' was a poet called Bhanudatta. It
appears from the last verse of the manuscript that he was a resident
of the province of Tirhoot, and son of a Brahman named Ganeshwar, who
was also a poet. The work, written in Sanscrit, gives the descriptions
of different classes of men and women, their classes being made out
from their age, description, conduct, etc. It contains three chapters,
and its date is not known, and cannot be ascertained.

`The Stage of Love' was composed by the poet Kullianmull, for the
amusement of Ladkhan, the son of Ahmed Lodi, the same Ladkhan being in
some places spoken of as Ladana Mull, and in others as Ladanaballa. He
is supposed to have been a relation or connection of the house of
Lodi, which reigned in Hindostan from A.D. 1450-1526. The work would,
therefore, have been written in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. It
contains ten chapters, and has been translated into English but only
six copies were printed for private circulation. This is supposed to
be the latest of the Sanscrit works on the subject, and the ideas in
it were evidently taken from previous writings of the same nature.

The contents of these works are in themselves a literary curiosity.
There are to be found both in Sanscrit poetry and in the Sanscrit
drama a certain amount of poetical sentiment and romance, which have,
in every country and in every language, thrown an immortal halo round
the subject. But here it is treated in a plain, simple, matter of fact
sort of way. Men and women are divided into classes and divisions in
the same way that Buffon and other writers on natural history have
classified and divided the animal world. As Venus was represented by
the Greeks to stand forth as the type of the beauty of woman, so the
Hindoos describe the Padmini or Lotus woman as the type of most
perfect feminine excellence, as follows:

She in whom the following signs and symptoms appear is called a
Padmini. Her face is pleasing as the full moon; her body, well clothed
with flesh, is soft as the Shiras or mustard flower, her skin is fine,
tender and fair as the yellow lotus, never dark coloured. Her eyes are
bright and beautiful as the orbs of the fawn, well cut, and with
reddish corners. Her bosom is hard, full and high; she has a good
neck; her nose is straight and lovely, and three folds or wrinkles
cross her middle - about the umbilical region. Her yoni resembles the
opening lotus bud, and her love seed (Kama salila) is perfumed like
the lily that has newly burst. She walks with swan-like gait, and her
voice is low and musical as the note of the Kokila bird, she delights
in white raiments, in fine jewels, and in rich dresses. She eats
little, sleeps lightly, and being as respectful and religious as she
is clever and courteous, she is ever anxious to worship the gods, and
to enjoy the conversation of Brahmans. Such, then, is the Padmini or
Lotus woman.

Detailed descriptions then follow of the Chitrini or Art woman; the
Shankhini or Conch woman, and the Hastini or Elephant woman, their
days of enjoyment, their various seats of passion, the manner in which
they should be manipulated and treated in sexual intercourse, along
with the characteristics of the men and women of the various countries
in Hindostan. The details are so numerous, and the subjects so
seriously dealt with, and at such length, that neither time nor space
will permit of their being given here.

One work in the English language is somewhat similar to these works of
the Hindoos. It is called `Kalogynomia: or the Laws of Female Beauty',
being the elementary principles of that science, by T. Bell, M.D.,
with twenty-four plates, and printed in London in 1821. It treats of
Beauty, of Love, of Sexual Intercourse, of the Laws regulating that
Intercourse, of Monogamy and Polygamy, of Prostitution, of Infidelity,
ending with a catalogue raisonnée of the defects of female beauty.

Other works in English also enter into great details of private and
domestic life: The Elements of Social Science, or Physical, Sexual and
Natural Religion, by a Doctor of Medicine, London, 1880, and Every
Woman's Book, by Dr Waters, 1826. To persons interested in the above
subjects these works will be found to contain such details as have
been seldom before published, and which ought to be thoroughly
understood by all philanthropists and benefactors of society.

After a perusal of the Hindoo work, and of the English books above
mentioned, the reader will understand the subject, at all events from
a materialistic, realistic and practical point of view. If all science
is founded more or less on a stratum of facts, there can be no harm in
making known to mankind generally certain matters intimately connected
with their private, domestic, and social life.

Alas! complete ignorance of them has unfortunately wrecked many a man
and many a woman, while a little knowledge of a subject generally
ignored by the masses would have enabled numbers of people to have
understood many things which they believed to be quite
incomprehensible, or which were not thought worthy of their
consideration.



INTRODUCTION




IT may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that
Vatsyayana was first brought to light and translated into the English
language. It happened thus. While translating with the pundits the
`Anunga Runga, or the stage of love', reference was frequently found
to be made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or of
that opinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally
questions were asked who the sage was, and the pundits replied that
Vatsya was the author of the standard work on love in Sanscrit
literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work,
and that it was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state. The
copy of the manuscript obtained in Bombay was defective, and so the
pundits wrote to Benares, Calcutta and Jeypoor for copies of the
manuscript from Sanscrit libraries in those places. Copies having been
obtained, they were then compared with each other, and with the aid of
a Commentary called `Jayamangla' a revised copy of the entire
manuscript was prepared, and from this copy the English translation
was made. The following is the certificate of the chief pundit:




`The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing four
different copies of the work. I had the assistance of a Commentary
called "Jayamangla" for correcting the portion in the first five
parts, but found great difficulty in correcting the remaining portion,
because, with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably
correct, all the other copies I had were far too incorrect. However, I
took that portion as correct in which the majority of the copies
agreed with each other.'




The `Aphorisms on Love' by Vatsyayana contain about one thousand two
hundred and fifty slokas or verses, and are divided into parts, parts
into chapters, and chapters into paragraphs. The whole consists of
seven parts, thirty-six chapters, and sixty-four paragraphs. Hardly
anything is known about the author. His real name is supposed to be
Mallinaga or Mrillana, Vatsyayana being his family name. At the close
of the work this is what he writes about himself:




`After reading and considering the works of Babhravya and other
ancient authors, and thinking over the meaning of the rules given by
them, this treatise was composed, according to the precepts of the
Holy Writ, for the benefit of the world, by Vatsyayana, while leading
the life of a religious student at Benares, and wholly engaged in the
contemplation of the Deity. This work is not to be used merely as an
instrument for satisfying our desires. A person acquainted with the
true principles of this science, who preserves his Dharma (virtue or
religious merit), his Artha (worldly wealth) and his Kama (pleasure or
sensual gratification), and who has regard to the customs of the
people, is sure to obtain the mastery over his senses. In short, an
intelligent and knowing person attending to Dharma and Artha and also
to Kama, without becoming the slave of his passions, will obtain
success in everything that he may do.'




It is impossible to fix the exact date either of the life of
Vatsyayana or of his work. It is supposed that he must have lived
between the first and sixth century of the Christian era, on the
following grounds. He mentions that Satakarni Satavahana, a king of
Kuntal, killed Malayevati his wife with an instrument called kartari
by striking her in the passion of love, and Vatsya quotes this case to
warn people of the danger arising from some old customs of striking
women when under the influence of this passion. Now this king of
Kuntal is believed to have lived and reigned during the first century
A.D., and consequently Vatsya must have lived after him. On the other
hand, Virahamihira, in the eighteenth chapter of his `Brihatsanhita',
treats of the science of love, and appears to have borrowed largely
from Vatsyayana on the subject. Now Virahamihira is said to have lived
during the sixth century A.D., and as Vatsya must have written his
works previously, therefore not earlier than the first century A.D.,
and not later than the sixth century A.D., must be considered as the
approximate date of his existence.




On the text of the `Aphorisms on Love', by Vatsyayana, only two
commentaries have been found. One called `Jayamangla' or
`Sutrabashya', and the other `Sutra vritti'. The date of the
`Jayamangla' is fixed between the tenth and thirteenth century A.D.,
because while treating of the sixty-four arts an example is taken from
the `Kavyaprakasha' which was written about the tenth century A.D.
Again, the copy of the commentary procured was evidently a transcript
of a manuscript which once had a place in the library of a Chaulukyan
king named Vishaladeva, a fact elicited from the following sentence at
the end of it.




`Here ends the part relating to the art of love in the commentary on
the "Vatsyayana Kama Sutra", a copy from the library of the king of
kings, Vishaladeva, who was a powerful hero, as it were a second
Arjuna, and head jewel of the Chaulukya family.'


Now it is well known that this king ruled in Guzerat from 1244 to 1262
A.D., and founded a city called Visalnagur. The date, therefore, of
the commentary is taken to be not earlier than the tenth and not later
than the thirteenth century. The author of it is supposed to be one
Yashodhara, the name given him by his preceptor being Indrapada. He
seems to have written it during the time of affliction caused by his
separation from a clever and shrewd woman, at least that is what lie
himself says at the end of each chapter. It is presumed that he called
his work after the name of his absent mistress, or the word may have
some connection with the meaning of her name.


This commentary was most useful in explaining the true meaning of
Vatsyayana, for the commentator appears to have had a considerable
knowledge of the times of the older author, and gives in some places
very minute information. This cannot be said of the other commentary,
called `Sutra vritti', which was written about A.D. 1789, by Narsing
Shastri, a pupil of a Sarveshwar Shastri; the latter was a descendant
of Bhaskur, and so also was our author, for at the conclusion of every
part he calls himself Bhaskur Narsing Shastri. He was induced to write
the work by order of the learned Raja Vrijalala, while he was residing
in Benares, but as to the merits of this commentary it does not
deserve much commendation. In many cases the writer does not appear to
have understood the meaning of the original author, and has changed
the text in many places to fit in with his own explanations.


A complete translation of the original work now follows. It has been
prepared in complete accordance with the text of the manuscript, and
is given, without further comments, as made from it.




Salutation to Dharma, Artha and Kama


IN the beginning, the Lord of Beings created men and women, and in the
form of commandments in one hundred thousand chapters laid down rules
for regulating their existence with regard to Dharma,\footnote
{Dharma is acquisition of religious merit, and is fully described in
Chapter 5,
{Kama is love, pleasure and sensual gratification. These three words are
retained throughout in their original, as technical terms. They may also be
defined as virtue, wealth and pleasure, the three things repeatedly spoken of
in the Laws of Manu.}
Some of these commandments, namely those which treated of
Dharma, were separately written by Swayambhu Manu; those that related
to Artha were compiled by Brihaspati; and those that referred to Kama
were expounded by Nandi, the follower of Mahadeva, in one thousand
chapters.

Now these `Kama Sutra' (Aphorisms on Love), written by Nandi in one
thousand chapters, were reproduced by Shvetaketu, the son of
Uddvalaka, in an abbreviated form in five hundred chapters, and this
work was again similarly reproduced in an abridged form, in one
hundred and fifty chapters, by Babhravya, an inheritant of the
Punchala (South of Delhi) country. These one hundred and fifty
chapters were then put together under seven heads or parts named
severally
{1.} Sadharana (general topics)
{2.} Samprayogika (embraces, etc.)
{3.} Kanya Samprayuktaka (union of males and females)
{4.} Bharyadhikarika (on one's own wife)
{5.} Paradika (on the wives of other people)
{6.} Vaisika (on courtesans)
{7.} Aupamishadika (on the arts of seduction, tonic medicines, etc.)


The sixth part of this last work was separately expounded by Dattaka
at the request of the public women of Pataliputra (Patna), and in the
same way Charayana explained the first part of it. The remaining
parts, viz. the second, third, fourth, fifth, and seventh, were each
separately expounded by
Suvarnanabha (second part)
Ghotakamukha (third part)
Gonardiya (fourth part)
Gonikaputra (fifth part)
Kuchumara (seventh part), respectively.

Thus the work being written in parts by different authors was almost
unobtainable and, as the parts which were expounded by Dattaka and the
others treated only of the particular branches of the subject to which
each part related, and moreover as the original work of Babhravya was
difficult to be mastered on account of its length, Vatsyayana,
therefore, composed his work in a small volume as an abstract of the
whole of the works of the above named authors.

PART I: INTRODUCTORY
Preface
Observations on the three worldly attainments of Virtue,
Wealth, and Love
On the study of the Sixty-four Arts
On the Arrangements of a House, and Household Furniture; and
about the Daily Life of a Citizen, his Companions, Amusements, etc.
About classes of Women fit and unfit for Congress with the
Citizen, and of Friends, and Messengers

PART II: ON SEXUAL UNION
{1.} Kinds of Union according to Dimensions, Force of Desire, and
Time; and on the different kinds of Love
{2.} Of the Embrace
{3.} On Kissing
{4.} On Pressing or Marking with the Nails
{5.} On Biting, and the ways of Love to be employed with regard to
Women of different countries
{6.} On the various ways of Lying down, and the different kinds of
Congress
{7.} On the various ways of Striking, and of the Sounds appropriate
to them
{8.} About females acting the part of Males
{9.} On holding the Lingam in the Mouth
{10.} How to begin and how to end the Congress. Different kinds of
Congress, and Love Quarrels

PART III: ABOUT THE ACQUISITION OF A WIFE
{1.} Observations on Betrothal and Marriage
{2.} About creating Confidence in the Girl
{3.} Courtship, and the manifestation of the feelings by outward
signs and deeds
{4.} On things to be done only by the Man, and the acquisition of
the Girl thereby. Also what is to be done by a Girl to gain
over a Man and subject him to her
{5.} On the different Forms of Marriage


PART IV: ABOUT A WIFE



{1.} On the manner of living of a virtuous Woman, and of her
behaviour during the absence of her Husband
{2.} On the conduct of the eldest Wife towards the other Wives of
her Husband, and of the younger Wife towards the elder
ones. Also on the conduct of a Virgin Widow remarried; of
a Wife disliked by her Husband; of the Women in the King's
Harem; and of a Husband who has more than one Wife

PART V: ABOUT THE WIVES OF OTHER PEOPLE
{1.} On the Characteristics of Men and Women, and the reason why
Women reject the Addresses of Men. About Men who have Success
with Women, and about Women who are easily gained over
{2.} About making Acquaintance with the Woman, and of the efforts to
gain her over
{3.} Examination of the State of a Woman's mind
{4.} The Business of a Go-Between
{5.} On the Love of Persons in authority with the Wives of other
People
{6.} About the Women of the Royal Harem, and of the keeping of one's
own Wife


PART VI: ABOUT COURTESANS
{1.} Of the Causes of a Courtesan resorting to Men; of the means of
Attaching to herself the Man desired, and the kind of Man
that it is desirable to be acquainted with
{2.} Of a Courtesan living with a Man as his Wife
{3.} Of the Means of getting Money; of the Signs of a Lover who is
beginning to be Weary, and of the way to get rid of him
{4.} About a Reunion with a former Lover
{5.} Of different kinds of Gain
{6.} Of Gains and Losses, attendant Gains and Losses, and Doubts;
and lastly, the different kinds of Courtesans

PART VII: ON THE MEANS OF ATTRACTING OTHERS TO ONE'S SELF
{1.} On Personal Adornment, subjugating the hearts of others, and of
tonic medicines
{2.} Of the means of exciting Desire, and of the ways of enlarging
the Lingam. Miscellaneous Experiments and Receipts



CHAPTER 2}
ON THE ACQUISITION OF DHARMA, ARTHA AND KAMA}




MAN, the period of whose life is one hundred years, should practise
Dharma, Artha and Kama at different times and in such a manner that
they may harmonize together and not clash in any way. He should
acquire learning in his childhood, in his youth and middle age he
should attend to Artha and Kama, and in his old age he should perform
Dharma, and thus seek to gain Moksha, i.e. release from further
transmigration. Or, on account of the uncertainty of life, he may
practise them at times when they are enjoined to be practised. But one
thing is to be noted, he should lead the life of a religious student
until he finishes his education.


Dharma is obedience to the command of the Shastra or Holy Writ of the
Hindoos to do certain things, such as the performance of sacrifices,
which are not generally done, because they do not belong to this
world, and produce no visible effect; and not to do other things, such
as eating meat, which is often done because it belongs to this world,
and has visible effects.

Dharma should be learnt from the Shruti (Holy Writ), and from those
conversant with it.

Artha is the acquisition of arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth,
equipages and friends. It is, further, the protection of what is
acquired, and the increase of what is protected.

Artha should be learnt from the king's officers, and from merchants
who may be versed in the ways of commerce.

Kama is the enjoyment of appropriate objects by the five senses of
hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting and smelling, assisted by the mind
together with the soul. The ingredient in this is a peculiar contact
between the organ of sense and its object, and the consciousness of
pleasure which arises from that contact is called Kama.

Kama is to be learnt from the Kama Sutra (aphorisms on love) and from
the practice of citizens.

When all the three, viz. Dharma, Artha and Kama, come together, the
former is better than the one which follows it, i.e. Dharma is better
than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama. But Artha should always be
first practised by the king for the livelihood of men is to be
obtained from it only. Again, Kama being the occupation of public
women, they should prefer it to the other two, and these are
exceptions to the general rule.


Some learned men say that as Dharma is connected with things not
belonging to this world, it is appropriately treated of in a book; and
so also is Artha, because it is practised only by the application of
proper means, and a knowledge of those means can only be obtained by
study and from books. But Kama being a thing which is practised even
by the brute creation, and which is to be found everywhere, does not
want any work on the subject.

This is not so. Sexual intercourse being a thing dependent on man and
woman requires the application of proper means by them, and those
means are to be learnt from the Kama Shastra. The non-application of
proper means, which we see in the brute creation, is caused by their
being unrestrained, and by the females among them only being fit for
sexual intercourse at certain seasons and no more, and by their
intercourse not being preceded by thought of any kind.




The Lokayatikas\footnote{$^1$}
{These were certainly materialists who seemed to think that a bird in the
hand was worth two in the bush.}
say: Religious ordinances should not be observed, for
they bear a future fruit, and at the same time it is also doubtful
whether they will bear any fruit at all. What foolish person will give
away that which is in his own hands into the hands of another?
Moreover, it is better to have a pigeon today than a peacock tomorrow;
and a copper coin which we have the certainty of obtaining, is better
than a gold coin, the possession of which is doubtful.


It is not so. 1st. Holy Writ, which ordains the practice of Dharma,
does not admit of a doubt.

2nd. Sacrifices such as those made for the destruction of enemies, or
for the fall of rain, are seen to bear fruit.

3rd. The sun, moon, stars, planets and other heavenly bodies appear to
work intentionally for the good of the world.

4th. the existence of this world is effected by the observance of the
rules respecting the four classes of men and their four stages of
life.\footnote{$^2$}
{Among the Hindoos the four classes of men are the Brahmans or priestly
class, the Kshutrya or warlike class, the Vaishya or agricultural and
mercantile class, and the Shoodra or menial class. The four stages of life
are, the life of a religious student, the life of a householder, the life of
a hermit, and the life of a Sunyasi or devotee.}

5th. We see that seed is thrown into the ground with the hope of
future crops.

Vatsyayana is therefore of opinion that the ordinances of religion
must be obeyed.


Those who believe that destiny is the prime mover of all things say:
We should not exert ourselves to acquire wealth, for sometimes it is
not acquired although we strive to get it, while at other times it
comes to us of itself without any exertion on our part. Everything is
therefore in the power of destiny, who is the lord of gain and loss,
of success and defeat, of pleasure and pain. Thus we see that
Bali\footnote{$^3$}
{Bali was a demon who had conquered Indra and gained his throne, but was
afterwards overcome by Vishnu at the time of his fifth incarnation.}
was raised to the throne of Indra by destiny, and was also put down by
the same power, and it is destiny only that call reinstate him.


It is not right to say so. As the acquisition of every object
presupposes at all events some exertion on the part of man, the
application of proper means may be said to be the cause of gaining all
our ends, and this application of proper means being thus necessary
(even where a thing is destined to happen), it follows that a person
who does nothing will enjoy no happiness.


Those who are inclined to think that Artha is the chief object to be
obtained argue thus. Pleasures should not be sought for, because they
are obstacles to the practice of Dharma and Artha, which are both
superior to them, and are also disliked by meritorious persons.
Pleasures also bring a man into distress, and into contact with low
persons; they cause him to commit unrighteous deeds, and produce
impurity in him; they make him regardless of the future, and encourage
carelessness and levity. And lastly, they cause him to be disbelieved
by all, received by none, and despised by everybody, including
himself. It is notorious, moreover, that many men who have given
themselves up to pleasure alone, have been ruined along with their
families and relations. Thus, king Dandakya, of the Bhoja dynasty,
carried off a Brahman's daughter with evil intent, and was eventually
ruined and lost his kingdom. Indra, too, having violated the chastity
of Ahalya, was made to suffer for it. In a like manner the mighty
Kichaka, who tried to seduce Draupadi, and Ravana, who attempted to
gain over Sita, were punished for their crimes. These and many others
fell by reason of their pleasures.\footnote{$^4$}%
{Dandakya is said to have abducted from the forest the daughter of a Brahman,
named Bhargava, and, being cursed by the Brahman, was buried with his kingdom
under a shower of dust. The place was called after his name the Dandaka
forest, celebrated in the Bamayana, but now unknown.



Ahalya was the wife of the sage Gautama. Indra caused her to
believe that he was Gautama, and thus enjoyed her. He was
cursed by Gautama and subsequently afflicted with a thousand
ulcers on his body.



Kichaka was the brother-in-law of King Virata, with whom the
Pandavas had taken refuge for one year. Kichaka was killed by
Bhima, who assumed the disguise of Draupadi. For this story the
Mahabarata should be referred to.



The story of Ravana is told in the Ramayana, which with the
Mahabarata form the two great epic poems of the Hindoos; the
latter was written by Vyasa, and the former by Valmiki.}


This objection cannot be sustained, for pleasures, being as necessary
for the existence and well being of the body as food, are consequently
equally required. They are, moreover, the results of Dharma and Artha.
Pleasures are, therefore, to be followed with moderation and caution.
No one refrains from cooking food because there are beggars to ask for
it, or from sowing seed because there are deer to destroy the corn
when it is grown up.

Thus a man practising Dharma, Artha and Kama enjoys happiness both in
this world and in the world to come. The good perform those actions in
which there is no fear as to what is to result from them in the next
world, and in which there is no danger to their welfare. Any action
which conduces to the practice of Dharma, Artha and Kama together, or
of any two, or even one of them, should be performed, but an action
which conduces to the practice of one of them at the expense of the
remaining two should not be performed.



CHAPTER 3 ON THE ARTS AND SCIENCES TO BE STUDIED}




MAN should study the Kama Sutra and the arts and sciences subordinate
thereto, in addition to the study of the arts and sciences contained
in Dharma and Artha. Even young maids should study this Kama Sutra
along with its arts and sciences before marriage, and after it they
should continue to do so with the consent of their husbands.

Here some learned men object, and say that females, not being allowed
to study any science, should not study the Kama Sutra.

But Vatsyayana is of opinion that this objection does not hold good,
for women already know the practice of Kama Sutra, and that practice
is derived from the Kama Shastra, or the science of Kama itself.
Moreover, it is not only in this but in many other cases that, though
the practice of a science is known to all, only a few persons are
acquainted with the rules and laws on which the science is based. Thus
the Yadnikas or sacrificers, though ignorant of grammar, make use of
appropriate words when addressing the different Deities, and do not
know how these words are framed. Again, persons do the duties required
of them on auspicious days, which are fixed by astrology, though they
are not acquainted with the science of astrology. In a like manner
riders of horses and elephants train these animals without knowing the
science of training animals, but from practice only. And similarly the
people of the most distant provinces obey the laws of the kingdom from
practice, and because there is a king over them, and without further
reason.\footnote{$^1$}
{The author wishes to prove that a great many things are done by
people from practice and custom, without their being acquainted
with the reason of things, or the laws on which they are based,
and this is perfectly true.}
And from experience we find that some women, such as
daughters of princes and their ministers, and public women, are
actually versed in the Kama Shastra.

A female, therefore, should learn the Kama Shastra, or at least a part
of it, by studying its practice from some confidential friend. She
should study alone in private the sixty-four practices that form a
part of the Kama Shastra. Her teacher should be one of the following
persons: the daughter of a nurse brought up with her and already
married,\footnote{$^2$}
{The proviso of being married applies to all the teachers.}
or a female friend who can be trusted in everything, or the
sister of her mother (i.e. her aunt), or an old female servant, or a
female beggar who may have formerly lived in the family, or her own
sister who can always be trusted.

The following are the arts to be studied, together with the Kama
Sutra:
Singing
Playing on musical instruments
Dancing
Union of dancing, singing, and playing instrumental music
Writing and drawing
Tattooing
Arraying and adorning an idol with rice and flowers
Spreading and arranging beds or couches of flowers, or flowers
upon the ground
Colouring the teeth, garments, hair, nails and bodies, i.e.
staining, dyeing, colouring and painting the same
Fixing stained glass into a floor
The art of making beds, and spreading out carpets and cushions for
reclining
Playing on musical glasses filled with water
Storing and accumulating water in aqueducts, cisterns and
reservoirs
Picture making, trimming and decorating
Stringing of rosaries, necklaces, garlands and wreaths
Binding of turbans and chaplets, and making crests and top-knots
of flowers
Scenic representations, stage playing Art of making ear ornaments
Art of preparing perfumes and odours
Proper disposition of jewels and decorations, and adornment in
dress
Magic or sorcery
Quickness of hand or manual skill
Culinary art, i.e. cooking and cookery
Making lemonades, sherbets, acidulated drinks, and spirituous
extracts with proper flavour and colour
Tailor's work and sewing
Making parrots, flowers, tufts, tassels, bunches, bosses, knobs,
etc., out of yarn or thread
Solution of riddles, enigmas, covert speeches, verbal puzzles and
enigmatical questions
A game, which consisted in repeating verses, and as one person
finished, another person had to commence at once, repeating
another verse, beginning with the same letter with which the last
speaker's verse ended, whoever failed to repeat was considered to
have lost, and to be subject to pay a forfeit or stake of some
kind
The art of mimicry or imitation
Reading, including chanting and intoning
Study of sentences difficult to pronounce. It is played as a game
chiefly by women, and children and consists of a difficult
sentence being given, and when repeated quickly, the words are
often transposed or badly pronounced
Practice with sword, single stick, quarter staff and bow and arrow
Drawing inferences, reasoning or inferring
Carpentry, or the work of a carpenter
Architecture, or the art of building
Knowledge about gold and silver coins, and jewels and gems
Chemistry and mineralogy
Colouring jewels, gems and beads
Knowledge of mines and quarries
Gardening; knowledge of treating the diseases of trees and plants,
of nourishing them, and determining their ages
Art of cock fighting, quail fighting and ram fighting
Art of teaching parrots and starlings to speak
Art of applying perfumed ointments to the body, and of dressing
the hair with unguents and perfumes and braiding it
The art of understanding writing in cypher, and the writing of
words in a peculiar way
The art of speaking by changing the forms of words. It is of
various kinds. Some speak by changing the beginning and end of
words, others by adding unnecessary letters between every syllable
of a word, and so on
Knowledge of language and of the vernacular dialects
Art of making flower carriages
Art of framing mystical diagrams, of addressing spells and charms,
and binding armlets
Mental exercises, such as completing stanzas or verses on
receiving a part of them; or supplying one, two or three lines
when the remaining lines are given indiscriminately from different
verses, so as to make the whole an entire verse with regard to its
meaning; or arranging the words of a verse written irregularly by
separating the vowels from the consonants, or leaving them out
altogether; or putting into verse or prose sentences represented
by signs or symbols. There are many other such exercises.
Composing poems
Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabularies
Knowledge of ways of changing and disguising the appearance of
persons
Knowledge of the art of changing the appearance of things, such as
making cotton to appear as silk, coarse and common things to
appear as fine and good
Various ways of gambling
Art of obtaining possession of the property of others by means of
muntras or incantations
Skill in youthful sports
Knowledge of the rules of society, and of how to pay respect and
compliments to others
Knowledge of the art of war, of arms, of armies, etc.
Knowledge of gymnastics
Art of knowing the character of a man from his features
Knowledge of scanning or constructing verses
Arithmetical recreations
Making artificial flowers
Making figures and images in clay


A public woman, endowed with a good disposition, beauty and other
winning qualities, and also versed in the above arts, obtains the name
of a Ganika, or public woman of high quality, and receives a seat of
honour in an assemblage of men. She is, moreover, always respected by
the king, and praised by learned men, and her favour being sought for
by all, she becomes an object of universal regard. The daughter of a
king too as well as the daughter of a minister, being learned in the
above arts, can make their husbands favourable to them, even though
these may have thousands of other wives besides themselves. And in the
same manner, if a wife becomes separated from her husband, and falls
into distress, she can support herself easily, even in a foreign
country, by means of her knowledge of these arts. Even the bare
knowledge of them gives attractiveness to a woman, though the practice
of them may be only possible or otherwise according to the
circumstances of each case. A man who is versed in these arts, who is
loquacious and acquainted with the arts of gallantry, gains very soon
the hearts of women, even though he is only acquainted with them for a
short time.



CHAPTER 4 THE LIFE OF A CITIZEN


HAVING thus acquired learning, a man, with the wealth that he may have
gained by gift, conquest, purchase, deposit,\footnote{$^1$}
{Gift is peculiar to a Brahman, conquest to a Kshatrya, while
purchase, deposit, and other means of acquiring wealth belongs
to the Vaishya.}
or inheritance from his
ancestors, should become a householder, and pass the life of a
citizen.\footnote{$^2$}
{This term would appear to apply generally to an inhabitant of
Hindoostan. it is not meant only for a dweller in a city, like
the Latin Urbanus as opposed to Rusticus.}
He should take a house in a city, or large village, or in
the vicinity of good men, or in a place which is the resort of many
persons. This abode should be situated near some water, and divided
into different compartments for different purposes. It should be
surrounded by a garden, and also contain two rooms, an outer and an
inner one. The inner room should be occupied by the females, while the
outer room, balmy with rich perfumes, should contain a bed, soft,
agreeable to the sight, covered with a clean white cloth, low in the
middle part, having garlands and bunches of flowers\footnote{$^3$}
{Natural garden flowers.}
upon it, and a
canopy above it, and two pillows, one at the top, another at the
bottom. There should be also a sort of couch besides, and at the head
of this a sort of stool, on which should be placed the fragrant
ointments for the night, as well as flowers, pots containing collyrium
and other fragrant substances, things used for perfuming the mouth,
and the bark of the common citron tree. Near the couch, on the ground,
there should be a pot for spitting, a box containing ornaments, and
also a lute hanging from a peg made of the tooth of an elephant, a
board for drawing, a pot containing perfume, some books, and some
garlands of the yellow amaranth flowers. Not far from the couch, and
on the ground, there should be a round seat, a toy cart, and a board
for playing with dice; outside the outer room there should be cages of
birds,\footnote{$^4$}
{Such as quails, partridges, parrots, starlings, etc.}
and a separate place for spinning, carving and such like
diversions. In the garden there should be a whirling swing and a
common swing, as also a bower of creepers covered with flowers, in
which a raised parterre should be made for sitting.

Now the householder, having got up in the morning and performed his
necessary duties,\footnote{$^5$}
{The calls of nature are always performed by the Hindoos the
first thing in the morning.}
should wash his teeth, apply a limited quantity of
ointments and perfumes to his body, put some ornaments on his person
and collyrium on his eyelids and below his eyes, colour his lips with
alacktaka,\footnote{$^6$}
{A colour made from lac.}
and look at himself in the glass. Having then eaten betel
leaves, with other things that give fragrance to the mouth, he should
perform his usual business. He should bathe daily, anoint his body
with oil every other day, apply a lathering substance\footnote{$^7$}
{This would act instead of soap, which was not introduced until
the rule of the Mahomedans.}
to his body
every three days, get his head (including face) shaved every four days
and the other parts of his body every five or ten days.\footnote{$^8$}
{Ten days are allowed when the hair is taken out with a pair of
pincers.}
All these
things should be done without fail, and the sweat of the armpits
should also be removed. Meals should be taken in the forenoon, in the
afternoon, and again at night, according to Charayana. After
breakfast, parrots and other birds should be taught to speak, and the
fighting of cocks, quails, and rams should follow. A limited time
should be devoted to diversions with Pithamardas, Vitas, and
Vidushakas,\footnote{$^9$}
{These are characters generally introduced in the Hindoo drama;
their characteristics will be explained further on.}
and then should be taken the midday sleep.\footnote{$^{10}$}
{Noonday sleep is only allowed in summer, when the nights are
short.}
After this
the householder, having put on his clothes and ornaments, should,
during the afternoon, converse with his friends. In the evening there
should be singing, and after that the householder, along with his
friend, should await in his room, previously decorated and perfumed,
the arrival of the woman that may be attached to him, or he may send a
female messenger for her, or go for her himself. After her arrival at
his house, he and his friend should welcome her, and entertain her
with a loving and agreeable conversation. Thus end the duties of the
day.


The following are the things to be done occasionally as diversions or
amusements:
Holding festivals\footnote{$^{11}$}
{These are very common in all parts of India.}
in honour of different Deities
Social gatherings of both sexes
Drinking parties
Picnics
Other social diversions

On some particular auspicious day, an assembly of citizens should be
convened in the temple of Saraswati.\footnote{$^{12}$}
{In the `Asiatic Miscellany', and in Sir W. Jones's works, will
be found a spirited hymn addressed to this goddess, who is
adored as the patroness of the fine arts, especially of music
and rhetoric, as the inventress of the Sanscrit language, etc.
etc. She is the goddess of harmony, eloquence and language, and
is somewhat analogous to Minerva. For farther information about
her, see Edward Moor's Hindoo Pantheon.}
There the skill of singers, and
of others who may have come recently to the town, should be tested,
and on the following day they should always be given some rewards.
After that they may either be retained or dismissed, according as
their performances are liked or not by the assembly. The members of
the assembly should act in concert, both in times of distress as well
as in times of prosperity, and it is also the duty of these citizens
to show hospitality to strangers who may have come to the assembly.
What is said above should be understood to apply to all the other
festivals which may be held in honour of the different Deities,
according to the present rules.

When men of the same age, disposition and talents, fond of the same
diversions and with the same degree of education, sit together in
company with public women,\footnote{$^{13}$}
{The public women, or courtesans (Vesya), of the early Hindoos
have often been compared with the Hetera of the Greeks. The
subject is dealt with at some length in H. H. Wilson's Select
Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindoos, in two volumes,
Trubner and Co., 1871. It may be fairly considered that the
courtesan was one of the elements, and an important element
too, of early Hindoo society, and that her education and
intellect were both superior to that of the women of the
household. Wilson says, `By the Vesya or courtesan, however, we
are not to understand a female who has disregarded the
obligation of law or the precepts of virtue, but a character
reared by a state of manners unfriendly to the admission of
wedded females into society, and opening it only at the expense
of reputation to women who were trained for association with
men by personal and mental acquirements to which the matron was
a stranger.'}
or in an assembly of citizens, or at the
abode of one among themselves, and engage in agreeable discourse with
each other, such is called a Sitting in company or a social gathering.
The subjects of discourse are to be the completion of verses half
composed by others, and the testing the knowledge of one another in
the various arts. The women who may be the most beautiful, who may
like the same things that the men like, and who may have power to
attract the minds of others, are here done homage to.


Men and women should drink in one another's houses. And here the men
should cause the public women to drink, and should then drink
themselves, liquors such as the Madhu, Aireya, Sara and Asawa, which
are of bitter and sour taste; also drinks concocted from the barks of
various trees, wild fruits and leaves.



Going to Gardens or Picnics

In the forenoon, men having dressed themselves should go to gardens on
horseback, accompanied by public women and followed by servants. And
having done there all the duties of the day, and passed the time in
various agreeable diversions, such as the fighting of quails, cocks
and rams, and other spectacles, they should return home in the
afternoon in the same manner, bringing with them bunches of flowers,
etc.

The same also applies to bathing in summer in water from which wicked
or dangerous animals have previously been taken out, and which has
been built in on all sides.

Spending nights playing with dice. Going out on moonlight nights.
Keeping the festive day in honour of spring. Plucking the sprouts and
fruits of the mango trees. Eating the fibres of lotuses. Eating the
tender ears of corn. Picnicing in the forests when the trees get their
new foliage. The Udakakashvedika or sporting in the water. Decorating
each other with the flowers of some trees. Pelting each other with the
flowers of the Kadamba tree, and many other sports which may either be
known to the whole country, or may be peculiar to particular parts of
it. These and similar other amusements should always be carried on by
citizens.

The above amusements should be followed by a person who diverts
himself alone in company with a courtesan, as well as by a courtesan
who can do the same in company with her maid servants or with
citizens.

A Pithamarda\footnote{$^{14}$}
{According to this description a Pithamarda would be a sort of
professor of all the arts, and as such received as the friend
and confidant of the citizen}
is a man without wealth, alone in the world, whose only
property consists of his Mallika,\footnote{$^{15}$}
{A seat in the form of the letter T.}
some lathering substance and a red
cloth, who comes from a good country, and who is skilled in all the
arts; and by teaching these arts is received in the company of
citizens, and in the abode of public women.

A Vita\footnote{$^{16}$}
{The Vita is supposed to represent somewhat the character of the
Parasite of the Greek comedy. It is possible that he was
retained about the person of the wealthy and dissipated as a
kind of private instructor, as well as an entertaining
companion.}
is a man who has enjoyed the pleasures of fortune, who is a
compatriot of the citizens with whom he associates, who is possessed
of the qualities of a houseliolder, who has his wife with him, and who
is honoured in the assembly of citizens and in the abodes of public
women, and lives on their means and on them. A Vidushaka\footnote{$^{17}$}
{Vidushaka is evidently the buffoon and jester. Wilson says of
him that he is the humble companion, not the servant, of a
prince or man of rank, and it is a curious peculiarity that he
is always a Brahman. He bears more affinity to Sancho Panza,
perhaps than any other character in western fiction, imitating
him in his combination of shrewdness and simplicity, his
fondness of good living and his love of ease. In the dramas of
intrigue he exhibits some of the talents of Mercury, but with
less activity and ingenuity, and occasionally suffers by his
interference. According to the technical definition of his
attributes he is to excite mirth by being ridiculous in person,
age, and attire.}
(also
called a Vaihasaka, i.e. one who provokes laughter) is a person only
acquainted with some of the arts, who is a jester, and who is trusted
by all.

These persons are employed in matters of quarrels and reconciliations
between citizens and public women.

This remark applies also to female beggars, to women with their heads
shaved, to adulterous women, and to public women skilled in all the
various arts.

Thus a citizen living in his town or village, respected by all, should
call on the persons of his own caste who may be worth knowing. He
should converse in company and gratify his friends by his society, and
obliging others by his assistance in various matters, he should cause
them to assist one another in the same way.

There are some verses on this subject as follows:

`A citizen discoursing, not entirely in the Sanscrit
language,\footnote{$^{18}$}
{This means, it is presumed, that the citizen should be
acquainted with several languages. The middle part of this
paragraph might apply to the Nihilists and Fenians of the day,
or to secret societies. It was perhaps a reference to the
Thugs.}
nor
wholly in the dialects of the country, on various topics in society,
obtains great respect. The wise should not resort to a society
disliked by the public, governed by no rules, and intent on the
destruction of others. But a learned man living in a society which
acts according to the wishes of the people, and which has pleasure for
its only object is highly respected in this world.'



CHAPTER 5 ABOUT THE KINDS OF WOMEN RESORTED TO BY THE CITIZENS,
AND OF FRIENDS AND MESSENGERS

WHEN Kama is practised by men of the four castes according to the
rules of the Holy Writ (i.e. by lawful marriage) with virgins of their
own caste, it then becomes a means of acquiring lawful progeny and
good fame, and it is not also opposed to the customs of the world. On
the contrary the practice of Kama with women of the higher castes, and
with those previously enjoyed by others, even though they be of the
same caste, is prohibited. But the practice of Kama with women of the
lower castes, with women excommunicated from their own caste, with
public women, and with women twice married,\footnote{$^1$}
{This term does not apply to a widow, but to a woman who has
probably left her husband, and is living with some other person
as a married woman, maritalement, as they say in France.}
is neither enjoined nor
prohibited. The object of practising Kama with such women is pleasure
only.

Nayikas,\footnote{$^2$}
{Any woman fit to be enjoyed without sin. The object of the
enjoyment of women is twofold, viz. pleasure and progeny. Any
woman who can be enjoyed without sin for the purpose of
accomplishing either the one or the other of these two objects
is a Nayika. The fourth kind of Nayika which Vatsya admits
further on is neither enjoyed for pleasure or for progeny, but
merely for accomplishing some special purpose in hand. The word
Nayika is retained as a technical term throughout.}
therefore, are of three kinds, viz. maids, women twice
married, and public women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion that
there is a fourth kind of Nayika, viz. a woman who is resorted to on
some special occasion even though she be previously married to
another. These special occasions are when a man thinks thus:



This woman is self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed by many
others besides myself. I may, therefore, safely resort to her as to
a public woman though she belongs to a higher caste than mine, and,
in so doing, I shall not be violating the ordinances of Dharma.

Or thus:



This is a twice-married woman and has been enjoyed by others before
me; there is, therefore, no objection to my resorting to her.

Or thus:



This woman has gained the heart of her great and powerful husband,
and exercises a mastery over him, who is a friend of my enemy; if,
therefore, she becomes united with me she will cause her husband to
abandon my enemy.

Or thus:

This woman will turn the mind of her husband, who is very powerful,
in my favour, he being at present disaffected towards me, and
intent on doing me some harm.


Or thus:



By making this woman my friend I shall gain the object of some
friend of mine, or shall be able to effect the ruin of some enemy,
or shall accomplish some other difficult purpose.

Or thus:

By being united with this woman, I shall kill her husband, and so
obtain his vast riches which I covet.

Or thus:



The union of this woman with me is not attended with any danger,
and will bring me wealth, of which, on account of my poverty and
inability to support myself, I am very much in need. I shall
therefore obtain her vast riches in this way without any
difficulty.


Or thus:

This woman loves me ardently, and knows all my weak points; if
therefore, I am unwilling to be united with her, she will make my
faults public, and thus tarnish my character and reputation. Or she
will bring some gross accusation against me, of which it may be
hard to clear myself, and I shall be ruined. Or perhaps she will
detach from me her husband who is powerful, and yet under her
control, and will unite him to my enemy, or will herself join the
latter.

Or thus:



The husband of this woman has violated the chastity of my wives,
I shall therefore return that injury by seducing his wives.

Or thus:

By the help of this woman I shall kill an enemy of the king, who
has taken shelter with her, and whom I am ordered by the king to
destroy.

Or thus:



The woman whom I love is under the control of this woman. I shall,
through the influence of the latter, be able to get at the former.

Or thus:



This woman will bring to me a maid, who possesses wealth and
beauty, but who is hard to get at, and under the control of
another.


Or lastly thus:

My enemy is a friend of this woman's husband, I shall therefore
cause her to join him, and will thus create an enmity between her
husband and him.

For these and similar other reasons the wives of other men may be
resorted to, but it must be distinctly understood that is only allowed
for special reasons, and not for mere carnal desire.

Charayana thinks that under these circumstances there is also a fifth
kind of Nayika, viz. a woman who is kept by a minister, or who repairs
to him occasionally; or a widow who accomplishes the purpose of a man
with the person to whom she resorts.

Suvarnanabha adds that a woman who passes the life of an ascetic and
in the condition of a widow may be considered as a sixth kind of
Nayika.

Ghotakamukha says that the daughter of a public woman, and a female
servant, who are still virgins, form a seventh kind of Nayika.

Gonardiya puts forth his doctrine that any woman born of good family,
after she has come of age, is an eighth kind of Nayika.

But these four latter kinds of Nayikas do not differ much from the
first four kinds of them, as there is no separate object in resorting
to them. Therefore, Vatsyayana is of opinion that there are only four
kinds of Nayikas, i.e. the maid, the twice-married woman, the public
woman, and the woman resorted to for a special purpose.

The following women are not to be enjoyed:
A leper
A lunatic
A woman turned out of caste
A woman who reveals secrets
A woman who publicly expresses desire for sexual intercourse
A woman who is extremely white
A woman who is extremely black
A bad-smelling woman
A woman who is a near relation
A woman who is a female friend
A woman who leads the life of an ascetic
And, lastly the wife of a relation, of a friend, of a learned
Brahman, and of the king

The followers of Babhravya say that any woman who has been enjoyed by
five men is a fit and proper person to be enjoyed. But Gonikaputra is
of opinion that even when this is the case, the wives of a relation,
of a learned Brahman and of a king should be excepted.

The following are of the kind of friends:
One who has played with you in the dust, i.e. in childhood
One who is bound by an obligation
One who is of the same disposition and fond of the same things
One who is a fellow student
One who is acquainted with your secrets and faults, and whose
faults and secrets are also known to you
One who is a child of your nurse
One who is brought up with you one who is an hereditary friend

These friends should possess the following qualities:
They should tell the truth
They should not be changed by time
They should be favourable to your designs



They should be firm
They should be free from covetousness
They should not be capable of being gained over by others
They should not reveal your secrets

Charayana says that citizens form friendship with washermen, barbers,
cowherds, florists, druggists, betel-leaf sellers, tavern keepers,
beggars, Pithamardas, Vitas and Vidushekas, as also with the wives of
all these people.

A messenger should possess the following qualities:
Skilfulness
Boldness
Knowledge of the intention of men by their outward signs
Absence of confusion, i.e. no shyness
Knowledge of the exact meaning of what others do or say
Good manners
Knowledge of appropriate times and places for doing different
things
Ingenuity in business
Quick comprehension
Quick application of remedies, i.e. quick and ready resources


And this part ends with a verse:
`The man who is ingenious and wise, who is accompanied by a friend,
and who knows the intentions of others, as also the proper time and
place for doing everything, can gain over, very easily, even a
woman who is very hard to be obtained.'


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