# Three: Scratching with the nails

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CHAPTER IV ON PRESSING, OR MARKING, OR SCRATCHING WITH THE NAILS

WHEN love becomes intense, pressing with the nails or scratching the
body with them is practised, and it is done on the following
occasions: on the first visit; at the time of setting out on a
journey; on the return from a journey; at the time when an angry lover
is reconciled; and lastly when the woman is intoxicated.

But pressing with the nails is not a usual thing except with those who
are intensely passionate, i.e. full of passion. It is employed,
together with biting, by those to whom the practice is agreeable.

Pressing with the nails is of the eight following kinds, according to
the forms of the marks which are produced:
\item{*} Sounding
\item{*} Half moon
\item{*} A circle
\item{*} A line
\item{*} A tiger's nail or claw
\item{*} A peacock's foot
\item{*} The jump of a hare
\item{*} The leaf of a blue lotus

The places that are to be pressed with the nails are as follows: the
arm pit, the throat, the breasts, the lips, the jaghana, or middle
parts of the body, and the thighs. But Suvarnanabha is of opinion that
when the impetuosity of passion is excessive, the places need not be
considered.

The qualities of good nails are that they should be bright, well set,
clean, entire, convex, soft, and glossy in appearance. Nails are of
three kinds according to their size:

\centerline{Small}
\centerline{Middling}
\centerline{Large}

Large nails, which give grace to the hands, and attract the hearts of
women from their appearance, are possessed by the Bengalees.

Small nails, which can be used in various ways, and are to be applied
only with the object of giving pleasure, are possessed by the people
of the southern districts.

Middling nails, which contain the properties of both the above kinds,
belong to the people of the Maharashtra.

When a person presses the chin, the breasts, the lower lip, or the
jaghana of another so softly that no scratch or mark is left, but only
the hair on the body becomes erect from the touch of the nails, and
the nails themselves make a sound, it is called a sounding or
pressing with the nails'.

This pressing is used in the case of a young girl when her lover
shampoos her, scratches her head, and wants to trouble or frighten
her.

The curved mark with the nails, which is impressed on the neck and the
breasts, is called the half moon'.

When the half moons are impressed opposite to each other, it is called
a circle'. This mark with the nails is generally made on the navel,
the small cavities about the buttocks, and on the joints of the thigh.

A mark in the form of a small line, and which can be made on any part
of the body, is called a line'.

This same line, when it is curved, and made on the breast, is called a
tiger's nail'.

When a curved mark is made on the breast by means of the five nails,
it is called a peacock's foot'. This mark is made with the object of
being praised, for it requires a great deal of skill to make it
properly.

When five marks with the nails are made close to one another near the
nipple of the breast, it is called the jump of a hare'.

A mark made on the breast or on the hips in the form of a leaf of the
blue lotus is called the leaf of a blue lotus'.

When a person is going on a journey, and makes a mark on the thighs,
or on the breast, it is called a token of remembrance'. On such an
occasion three or four lines are impressed close to one another with
the nails.

Here ends the marking with the nails. Marks of other kinds than the
above may also be made with the nails, for the ancient authors say
that, as there are innumerable degrees of skill among men (the
practice of this art being known to all), so there are innumerable
ways of making these marks. And as pressing or marking with the nails
is independent of love, no one can say with certainty how many
different kinds of marks with the nails do actually exist. The reason
of this is, Vatsyayana says, that as variety is necessary in love, so
love is to be Produced by means of variety. It is on this account that
courtesans, who are well acquainted with various ways and means,
become so desirable, for if variety is sought in all the arts and
amusements, such as archery and others, how much more should it be
sought after in the present case.

The marks of the nails should not be made on married women, but
particular kinds of marks may be made on their private parts for the
remembrance and increase of love.

There are also some verses on the subject, as follows:

The love of a woman who sees the marks of nails on the private parts
of her body, even though they are old and almost worn out, becomes
again fresh and new. If there be no marks of nails to remind a person
of the passages of love, then love is lessened in the same way as when
no union takes place for a long time.'

Even when a stranger sees at a distance a young woman with the marks
of nails on her breast,\footnote{$^1$}
{From this it would appear that in ancient times the breasts of
women were not covered, and this is seen in the paintings of
the Ajunta and other caves, where we find that the breasts of
even royal ladies and others are exposed.}
he is filled with love and respect for her.

A man, also, who carries the marks of nails and teeth on some parts of
his body, influences the mind of a woman, even though it be ever so
firm. In short, nothing tends to increase love so much as the effects
of marking with the nails, and biting.

CHAPTER V ON BITING, AND THE MEANS TO BE EMPLOYED WITH REGARD
TO WOMEN OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

ALL the places that can be kissed are also the places that can be
bitten, except the upper lip, the interior of the mouth, and the eyes.

The qualities of good teeth are as follows: They should be equal,
possessed of a pleasing brightness, capable of being coloured, of
proper proportions, unbroken, and with sharp ends.

The defects of teeth on the other hand are that they are blunt,
protruding from the gums, rough, soft, large, and loosely set.

The following are the different kinds of biting:

\centerline{The hidden bite}
\centerline{The swollen bite}
\centerline{The point}
\centerline{The line of points}
\centerline{The coral and the jewel}
\centerline{The line of jewels}
\centerline{The broken cloud}
\centerline{The biting of the boar}

The biting, which is shown only by the excessive redness of the skin
that is bitten, is called the hidden bite'.

When the skin is pressed down on both sides, it is called the swollen
bite'.

When a small portion of the skin is bitten with two teeth only, it is
called the point'.

When such small portions of the skin are bitten with all the teeth, it
is called the line of points'.

The biting, which is done by bringing together the teeth and the lips,
is called the coral and the jewel'. The lip is the coral, and the
teeth the jewel.

When biting is done with all the teeth, it is called the line of
jewels'.

The biting, which consists of unequal risings in a circle, and which
comes from the space between the teeth, is called the broken cloud'.
This is impressed on the breasts.

The biting, which consists of many broad rows of marks near to one
another, and with red intervals, is called the biting of a boar'.
This is impressed on the breasts and the shoulders; and these two last
modes of biting are peculiar to persons of intense passion.

The lower lip is the place on which the hidden bite', the swollen
bite', and the point' are made; again the swollen bite' and the
coral and the jewel' bite are done on the cheek. Kissing, pressing
with the nails, and biting are the ornaments of the left cheek, and
when the word cheek is used it is to be understood as the left cheek.

Both the line of points' and the line of jewels' are to be impressed
on the throat, the arm pit, and the joints of the thighs; but the
line of points' alone is to be impressed on the forehead and the
thighs.

The marking with the nails, and the biting of the following things -
an ornament of the forehead, an ear ornament, a bunch of flowers, a
betel leaf, or a tamala leaf, which are worn by, or belong to the
woman that is beloved - are signs of the desire of enjoyment.

Here end the different kinds of biting.

In the affairs of love a man should do such things as are agreeable to
the women of different countries.

The women of the central countries (i.e. between the Ganges and the
Jumna) are noble in their character, not accustomed to disgraceful
practices, and dislike pressing the nails and biting.

The women of the Balhika country are gained over by striking.

The women of Avantika are fond of foul pleasures, and have not good
manners.

The women of the Maharashtra are fond of practising the sixty-four
arts, they utter low and harsh words, and like to be spoken to in the
same way, and have an impetuous desire of enjoyment.

The women of Pataliputra (i.e. the modern Patna) are of the same
nature as the women of the Maharashtra, but show their likings only in
secret.

The women of the Dravida country, though they are rubbed and pressed
about at the time of sexual enjoyment, have a slow fall of semen, that
is they are very slow in the act of coition.

The women of Vanavasi are moderately passionate, they go through every
kind of enjoyment, cover their bodies, and abuse those who utter low,
mean and harsh words.

The women of Avanti hate kissing, marking with the nails, and biting,
but they have a fondness for various kinds of sexual union.

The women of Malwa like embracing and kissing, but not wounding, and
they are gained over by striking.

The women of Abhira, and those of the country about the Indus and five
rivers (i.e. the Punjab), are gained over by the Auparishtaka or mouth
congress.

The women of Aparatika are full of passion, and make slowly the sound
Sit'.

The women of the Lat country have even more impetuous desire, and also
make the sound Sit'.

The women of the Stri Rajya, and of Koshola (Oude), are full of
impetuous desire, their semen falls in large quantities and they are
fond of taking medicine to make it do so.

The women of the Andhra country have tender bodies, they are fond of
enjoyment, and have a liking for voluptuous pleasures.

The women of Ganda have tender bodies, and speak sweetly.

Now Suvarnanabha is of opinion that that which is agreeable to the
nature of a particular person, is of more consequence than that which
is agreeable to a whole nation, and that therefore the peculiarities
of the country should not be observed in such cases. The various
pleasures, the dress, and the sports of one country are in time
borrowed by another, and in such a case these things must be
considered as belonging originally to that country.

Among the things mentioned above, viz. embracing, kissing, etc., those
which increase passion should be done first, and those which are only
for amusement or variety should be done afterwards.

There are also some verses on this subject as follows:

When a man bites a woman forcibly, she should angrily do the same to
him with double force. Thus a "point" should be returned with a "line
of points", and a "line of points" with a "broken cloud", and if she
be excessively chafed, she should at once begin a love quarrel with
him. At such a time she should take hold of her lover by the hair, and
bend his head down, and kiss his lower lip, and then, being
intoxicated with love, she should shut her eyes and bite him in
various places. Even by day, and in a place of public resort, when her
lover shows her any mark that she may have inflicted on his body, she
should smile at the sight of it, and turning her face as if she were
going to chide him, she should show him with an angry look the marks
on her own body that have been made by him. Thus if men and women act
according to each other's liking, their love for each other will not
be lessened even in one hundred years.'

CHAPTER VI OF THE DIFFERENT WAYS OF LYING DOWN, AND VARIOUS KINDS OF CONGRESS

On the occasion of a high congress' the Mrigi (Deer) woman should lie
down in such a way as to widen her yoni, while in a low congress' the
Hastini (Elephant) woman should lie down so as to contract hers. But
in an equal congress' they should lie down in the natural position.
What is said above concerning the Mrigi and the Hastini applies also
to the Vadawa (Mare) woman. In a low congress the woman should
particularly make use of medicine, to cause her desires to be
satisfied quickly.

The Deer-woman has the following three ways of lying down:

\centerline{The widely opened position}
\centerline{The yawning position}
\centerline{The position of the wife of Indra}

When she lowers her head and raises her middle parts, it is called the
widely opened position'. At such a time the man should apply some
unguent, so as to make the entrance easy.

When she raises her thighs and keeps them wide apart and engages in
congress, it is called the yawning position'.

When she places her thighs with her legs doubled on them upon her
sides, and thus engages in congress, it is called the position of
Indrani and this is learnt only by practice. The position is also
useful in the case of the highest congress'.

The clasping position' is used in low congress', and in the lowest
congress', together with the pressing position', the twining
position', and the mare's position'.

When the legs of both the male and the female are stretched straight
out over each other, it is called the clasping position'. It is of
two kinds, the side position and the supine position, according to the
way in which they lie down. In the side position the male should
invariably lie on his left side, and cause the woman to lie on her
right side, and this rule is to be observed in lying down with all
kinds of women.

When, after congress has begun in the clasping position, the woman
presses her lover with her thighs, it is called the pressing
position'.

When the woman places one of her thighs across the thigh of her lover
it is called the twining position'.

When a woman forcibly holds in her yoni the lingam after it is in, it
is called the mare's position'. This is learnt by practice only, and
is chiefly found among the women of the Andhra country.

The above are the different ways of lying down, mentioned by
Babhravya. Suvarnanabha, however, gives the following in addition:

When the female raises both of her thighs straight up, it is called
the rising position'.

When she raises both of her legs, and places them on her lover's
shoulders, it is called the yawning position'.

When the legs are contracted, and thus held by the lover before his
bosom, it is called the pressed position'.

When only one of her legs is stretched out, it is called the half
pressed position'.

When the woman places one of her legs on her lover's shoulder, and
stretches the other out, and then places the latter on his shoulder,
and stretches out the other, and continues to do so alternately, it is
called the splitting of a bamboo'.

When one of her legs is placed on the head, and the other is stretched
out, it is called the fixing of a nail'. This is learnt by practice
only.

When both the legs of the woman are contracted, and placed on her
stomach, it is called the crab's position'.

When the thighs are raised and placed one upon the other, it is called
the packed position'.

When the shanks are placed one upon the other, it is called the
lotus-like position'.

When a man, during congress, turns round, and enjoys the woman without
leaving her, while she embraces him round the back all the time, it is
called the turning position', and is learnt only by practice.

Thus, says Suvarnanabha, these different ways of lying down, sitting,
and standing should be practised in water, because it is easy to do so
therein. But Vatsyayana is of opinion that congress in water is
improper, because it is prohibited by the religious law.

When a man and a woman support themselves on each other's bodies, or
on a wall, or pillar, and thus while standing engage in congress, it
is called the supported congress'.

When a man supports himself against a wall, and the woman, sitting on
his hands joined together and held underneath her, throws her arms
round his neck, and putting her thighs alongside his waist, moves
herself by her feet, which are touching the wall against which the man
is leaning, it is called the suspended congress'.

When a woman stands on her hands and feet like a quadruped, and her
lover mounts her like a bull, it is called the congress of a cow'. At
this time everything that is ordinarily done on the bosom should be
done on the back.

In the same way can be carried on the congress of a dog, the congress
of a goat, the congress of a deer, the forcible mounting of an ass,
the congress of a cat, the jump of a tiger, the pressing of an
elephant, the rubbing of a boar, and the mounting of a horse. And in
all these cases the characteristics of these different animals should
be manifested by acting like them.

When a man enjoys two women at the same time, both of whom love him
equally, it is called the united congress'.

When a man enjoys many women altogether, it is called the congress of
a herd of cows'.

The following kinds of congress-sporting in water, or the congress of
an elephant with many female elephants which is said to take place
only in the water, the congress of a collection of goats, the congress
of a collection of deer take place in imitation of these animals.

In Gramaneri many young men enjoy a woman that may be married to one
of them, either one after the other, or at the same time. Thus one of
them holds her, another enjoys her, a third uses her mouth, a fourth
holds her middle part, and in this way they go on enjoying her several
parts alternately.

The same things can be done when several men are sitting in company
with one courtesan, or when one courtesan is alone with many men. In
the same way this can be done by the women of the king's harem when
they accidentally get hold of a man.

The people in the Southern countries have also a congress in the anus,
that is called the lower congress'.

Thus ends the various kinds of congress. There are also two verses on
the subject as follows:

An ingenious person should multiply the kinds of congress after the
fashion of the different kinds of beasts and of birds. For these
different kinds of congress, performed according to the usage of each
country, and the liking of each individual, generate love, friendship,
and respect in the hearts of women.'

\vfill\eject

\centerline{\myf CHAPTER VII}
\centerline{\myf OF THE VARIOUS MODES OF STRIKING, AND}
\centerline{\myf OF THE SOUNDS APPROPRIATE TO THEM}

SEXUAL intercourse can be compared to a quarrel, on account of the
contrarieties of love and its tendency to dispute. The place of
striking with passion is the body, and on the body the special places
are:

The shoulders
\item{} The space between the breasts
\item{} The back
\item{} The jaghana, or middle part of the body
\item{} The sides

Striking is of four kinds:
\item{} Striking with the back of the hand
\item{} Striking with the fingers a little contracted
\item{} Striking with the fist
\item{} Striking with the open palm of the hand

On account of its causing pain, striking gives rise to the hissing
sound, which is of various kinds, and to the eight kinds of crying:
\item{} The sound Hin
\item{} The thundering sound
\item{} The cooing sound
\item{} The weeping sound
\item{} The sound Phut
\item{} The sound Ph\^at
\item{} The sound S\^ut
\item{} The sound Pl\^at

Besides these, there are also words having a meaning, such as
mother', and those that are expressive of prohibition, sufficiency,
desire of liberation, pain or praise, and to which may be added sounds
like those of the dove, the cuckoo, the green pigeon, the parrot, the
bee, the sparrow, the flamingo, the duck, and the quail, which are all

Blows with the fist should be given on the back of the woman while she
is sitting on the lap of the man, and she should give blows in return,
abusing the man as if she were angry, and making the cooing and the
weeping sounds. While the woman is engaged in congress the space
between the breasts should be struck with the back of the hand, slowly
at first, and then proportionately to the increasing excitement, until
the end.

At this time the sounds Hin and others may be made, alternately or
optionally, according to habit. When the man, making the sound Phât,
strikes the woman on the head, with the fingers of his hand a little
contracted, it is called Prasritaka, which means striking with the
fingers of the hand a little contracted. In this case the appropriate
sounds are the cooing sound, the sound Ph\^at and the sound Phut in the
interior of the mouth, and at the end of congress the sighing and
weeping sounds. The sound Phât is an imitation of the sound of a
bamboo being split, while the sound Phut is like the sound made by
something falling into water. At all times when kissing and such like
things are begun, the woman should give a reply with a hissing sound.
During the excitement when the woman is not accustomed to striking,
she continually utters words expressive of prohibition, sufficiently,
or desire of liberation, as well as the words father', mother',
intermingled with the sighing, weeping and thundering sounds.\footnote{$^1$}
{Men who are well acquainted with the art of love are well aware
how often one woman differs from another in her sighs and
sounds during the time of congress. Some women like to be
talked to in the most loving way, others in the most lustful
way, others in the most abusive way, and so on. Some women
enjoy themselves with closed eyes in silence, others make a
great noise over it, and some almost faint away. The great art
is to ascertain what gives them the greatest pleasure, and what
specialities they like best.}
Towards
the conclusion of the congress, the breasts, the jaghana, and the
sides of the woman should be pressed with the open palms of the hand,
with some force, until the end of it, and then sounds like those of
the quail or the goose should be made.

There are two verses on the subject as follows:

The characteristics of manhood are said to consist of roughness and
impetuosity, while weakness, tenderness, sensibility, and an
inclination to turn away from unpleasant things are the distinguishing
marks of womanhood. The excitement of passion, and peculiarities of
habit may sometimes cause contrary results to appear, but these do not
last long, and in the end the natural state is resumed.'

The wedge on the bosom, the scissors on the head, the piercing
instrument on the cheeks, and the pinchers on the breasts and sides,
may also be taken into consideration with the other four modes of
striking, and thus give eight ways altogether. But these four ways of
striking with instruments are peculiar to the people of the southern
countries, and the marks caused by them are seen on the breasts of
their women. They are local peculiarities, but Vatsyayana is of
opinion that the practice of them is painful, barbarous, and base, and
quite unworthy of imitation.

In the same way anything that is a local peculiarity should not always
be adopted elsewhere, and even in the place where the practice is
prevalent, excess of it should always be avoided. Instances of the
dangerous use of them may be given as follows. The king of the
Panchalas killed the courtesan Madhavasena by means of the wedge
during congress. King Satakarni Satavahana of the Kuntalas deprived
his great Queen Malayavati of her life by a pair of scissors, and
Naradeva, whose hand was deformed, blinded a dancing girl by directing
a piercing instrument in a wrong way.

There are also two verses on the subject as follows:

About these things there cannot be either enumeration or any definite
rule. Congress having once commenced, passion alone gives birth to all
the acts of the parties.'

Such passionate actions and amorous gesticulations or movements,
which arise on the spur of the moment, and during sexual intercourse,
cannot be defined, and are as irregular as dreams. A horse having once
attained the fifth degree of motion goes on with blind speed,
regardless of pits, ditches, and posts in his way; and in the same
manner a loving pair become blind with passion in the heat of
congress, and go on with great impetuosity, paying not the least
regard to excess. For this reason one who is well acquainted with the
science of love, and knowing his own strength, as also the tenderness,
impetuosity, and strength of the young women, should act accordingly.
The various modes of enjoyment are not for all times or for all
persons, but they should only be used at the proper time. and in the
proper countries and places.'

CHAPTER VIII ABOUT WOMEN ACTING THE PART OF A MAN; AND
OF THE WORK OF A MAN

WHEN a woman sees that her lover is fatigued by constant congress,
without having his desire satisfied, she should, with his permission,
lay him down upon his back, and give him assistance by acting his
part. She may also do this to satisfy the curiosity of her lover, or
her own desire of novelty.

There are two ways of doing this, the first is when during congress
she turns round, and gets on the top of her lover, in such a manner as
to continue the congress, without obstructing the pleasure of it; and
the other is when she acts the man's part from the beginning. At such
a time, with flowers in her hair hanging loose, and her smiles broken
by hard breathings, she should press upon her lover's bosom with her
own breasts, and lowering her head frequently, should do in return the
same actions which he used to do before, returning his blows and
chaffing him, should say, I was laid down by you, and fatigued with
hard congress, I shall now therefore lay you down in return.' She
should then again manifest her own bashfulness, her fatigue, and her
desire of stopping the congress. In this way she should do the work of
a man, which we shall presently relate.

Whatever is done by a man for giving pleasure to a woman is called the
work of a man, and is as follows:

While the woman is lying on his bed, and is as it were abstracted by
his conversation, he should loosen the knot of her undergarments, and
when she begins to dispute with him, he should overwhelm her with
kisses. Then when his lingam is erect he should touch her with his
hands in various places, and gently manipulate various parts of the
body. If the woman is bashful, and if it is the first time that they
have come together, the man should place his hands between her thighs,
which she would probably keep close together, and if she is a very
young girl, he should first get his hands upon her breasts, which she
would probably cover with her own hands, and under her armpits and on
her neck. If however she is a seasoned woman, he should do whatever is
agreeable either to him or to her, and whatever is fitting for the
occasion. After this he should take hold of her hair, and hold her
chin in his fingers for the purpose of kissing her. On this, if she is
a young girl, she will become bashful and close her eyes. Anyhow he
should gather from the action of the woman what things would be
pleasing to her during congress.

Here Suvarnanabha says that while a man is doing to the woman what he
likes best during congress, he should always make a point of pressing
those parts of her body on which she turns her eyes.

The signs of the enjoyment and satisfaction of the woman are as
follows: her body relaxes, she closes her eyes, she puts aside all
bashfulness, and shows increased willingness to unite the two organs
as closely together as possible. On the other hand, the signs of her
want of enjoyment and of failing to be satisfied are as follows: she
shakes her hands, she does not let the man get up, feels dejected,
bites the man, kicks him, and continues to go on moving after the man
has finished. In such cases the man should rub the yoni of the woman
with his hand and fingers (as the elephant rubs anything with his
trunk) before engaging in congress, until it is softened, and after
that is done he should proceed to put his lingam into her.

The acts to be done by the man are:
\item{} Moving forward
\item{} Friction or churning
\item{} Piercing
\item{} Rubbing
\item{} Pressing
\item{} Giving a blow
\item{} The blow of a boar
\item{} The blow of a bull
\item{} The sporting of a sparrow

When the organs are brought together properly and directly it is
called moving the organ forward'.

When the lingam is held with the hand, and turned all round in the
yoni, it is called churning'.

When the yoni is lowered, and the upper part of it is struck with the
lingam, it is called piercing'.

When the same thing is done on the lower part of the yoni, it is
called rubbing'.

When the yoni is pressed by the lingam for a long time, it is called
pressing'.

When the lingam is removed to some distance from the yoni, and then
forcibly strikes it, it is called giving a blow'.

When only one part of the yoni is rubbed with the lingam, it is called
the blow of a boar'.

When both sides of the yoni are rubbed in this way, it is called the
blow of a bull'.

When the lingam is in the yoni, and moved up and down frequently, and
without being taken out, it is called the sporting of a sparrow'.
This takes place at the end of congress.

When a woman acts the part of a man, she has the following things to
do in addition to the nine given above:
\item{} The pair of tongs
\item{} The top
\item{} The swing

When the woman holds the lingam in her yoni, draws it in, presses it,
and keeps it thus in her for a long time, it is called the pair of
tongs'.

When, while engaged in congress, she turns round like a wheel, it is
called the top'. This is learnt by practice only.

When, on such an occasion, the man lifts up the middle part of his
body, and the woman turns round her middle part, it is called the
swing'.

When the woman is tired, she should place her forehead on that of her
lover, and should thus take rest without disturbing the union of the
organs, and when the woman has rested herself the man should turn
round and begin the congress again.

There are also some verses on the subject as follows:

Though a woman is reserved, and keeps her feelings concealed; yet
when she gets on the top of a man, she then shows all her love and
desire. A man should gather from the actions of the woman of what
disposition she is, and in what way she likes to be enjoyed. A woman
during her monthly courses, a woman who has been lately confined, and
a fat woman should not be made to act the part of a man.'

CHAPTER IX OF THE AUPARISHTAKA OR MOUTH CONGRESS

THERE are two kinds of eunuchs, those that are disguised as males, and
those that are disguised as females. Eunuchs disguised as females
imitate their dress, speech, gestures, tenderness, timidity,
simplicity, softness and bashfulness. The acts that are done on the
jaghana or middle parts of women, are done in the mouths of these
eunuchs, and this is called Auparishtaka.\footnote{$^1$}
{This practice appears to have been prevalent in some parts of
India from a very ancient time. The Shustruta, a work on
medicine some two thousand years old, describes the wounding of
the lingam with the teeth as one of the causes of a disease
treated upon in that work. Traces of the practice are found as
far back as the eighth century, for various kinds of the
Auparishtaka are represented in the sculptures of many Shaiva
temples at Bhuvaneshwara, near Cuttack, in Orissa, and which
were built about that period. From these sculptures being found
in such places, it would seem that this practice was popular in
that part of the country at that time. It does not seem to be
so prevalent now in Hindustan, its place perhaps is filled up
by the practice of sodomy, introduced since the Mahomedan
period.}
These eunuchs derive their
imaginable pleasure, and their livelihood from this kind of congress,
and they lead the life of courtesans. So much concerning eunuchs
disguised as females.

Eunuchs disguised as males keep their desires secret, and when they
wish to do anything they lead the life of shampooers. Under the
pretence of shampooing, a eunuch of this kind embraces and draws
towards himself the thighs of the man whom he is shampooing, and after
this he touches the joints of his thighs and his jaghana, or central
portions of his body. Then, if he finds the lingam of the man erect,
he presses it with his hands and chaffs him for getting into that
state. If after this, and after knowing his intention, the man does
not tell the eunuch to proceed, then the latter does it of his own
accord and begins the congress. If however he is ordered by the man to
do it, then he disputes with him, and only consents at last with
difficulty.

The following eight things are then done by the eunuch one after the
other:
\item{} The nominal congress
\item{} Biting the sides
\item{} Pressing outside
\item{} Pressing inside
\item{} Kissing
\item{} Rubbing
\item{} Sucking a mango fruit
\item{} Swallowing up

At the end of each of these, the eunuch expresses his wish to stop,
but when one of them is finished, the man desires him to do another,
and after that is done, then the one that follows it, and so on.

When, holding the man's lingam with his hand, and placing it between
his lips, the eunuch moves about his mouth, it is called the nominal
congress'.

When, covering the end of the lingam with his fingers collected
together like the bud of a plant or flower, the eunuch presses the
sides of it with his lips, using his teeth also, it is called biting
the sides'.

When, being desired to proceed, the eunuch presses the end of the
lingam with his lips closed together, and kisses it as if he were
drawing it out, it is called the outside pressing'.

When, being asked to go on, he puts the lingam further into his mouth,
and presses it with his lips and then takes it out, it is called the
inside pressing'.

When, holding the lingam in his hand, the eunuch kisses it as if he
were kissing the lower lip, it is called kissing'.

When, after kissing it, he touches it with his tongue everywhere, and
passes the tongue over the end of it, it is called rubbing'.

When, in the same way, he puts the half of it into his mouth, and
forcibly kisses and sucks it, this is called sucking a mango fruit'.

And lastly, when, with the consent of the man, the eunuch puts the
whole lingam into his mouth, and presses it to the very end, as if he
were going to swallow it up, it is called swallowing up'.

Striking, scratching, and other things may also be done during this
kind of congress.

The Auparishtaka is practised also by unchaste and wanton women,
female attendants and serving maids, i.e. those who are not married to
anybody, but who live by shampooing.

The Acharyas (i.e. ancient and venerable authors) are of opinion that
this Auparishtaka is the work of a dog and not of a man, because it is
a low practice, and opposed to the orders of the Holy Writ, and
because the man himself suffers by bringing his lingam into contact
with the mouths of eunuchs and women. But Vatsyayana says that the
orders of the Holy Writ do not affect those who resort to courtesans,
and the law prohibits the practice of the Auparishtaka with married
women only. As regards the injury to the male, that can be easily
remedied.

The people of Eastern India do not resort to women who practise the
Auparishtaka.

The people of Ahichhatra resort to such women, but do nothing with
them, so far as the mouth is concerned.

The people of Saketa do with these women every kind of mouth congress,
while the people of Nagara do not practise this, but do every other
thing.

The people of the Shurasena country, on the southern bank of the
Jumna, do everything without any hesitation, for they say that women
being naturally unclean, no one can be certain about their character,
their purity, their conduct, their practices, their confidences, or
their speech. They are not however on this account to be abandoned,
because religious law, on the authority of which they are reckoned
pure, lays down that the udder of a cow is clean at the time of
milking, though the mouth of a cow, and also the mouth of her calf,
are considered unclean by the Hindoos. Again a dog is clean when he
seizes a deer in hunting, though food touched by a dog is otherwise
considered very unclean. A bird is clean when it causes a fruit to
fall from a tree by pecking at it, though things eaten by crows and
other birds are considered unclean. And the mouth of a woman is clean
for kissing and such like things at the time of sexual intercourse.
Vatsyayana moreover thinks that in all these things connected with
love, everybody should act according to the custom of his country, and
his own inclination.

There are also the following verses on the subject:

`The male servants of some men carry on the mouth congress with their
masters. It is also practised by some citizens, who know each other
well, among themselves. Some women of the harem, when they are
amorous, do the acts of the mouth on the yonis of one another, and
some men do the same thing with women. The way of doing this (i.e. of
kissing the yoni) should be known from kissing the mouth. When a man
and woman lie down in an inverted order, i.e. with the head of the one
towards the feet of the other and carry on this congress, it is called
the "congress of a crow".'

For the sake of such things courtesans abandon men possessed of good
qualities, liberal and clever, and become attached to low persons,
such as slaves and elephant drivers. The Auparishtaka, or mouth
congress, should never be done by a learned Brahman, by a minister
that carries on the business of a state, or by a man of good
reputation, because though the practice is allowed by the Shastras,
there is no reason why it should be carried on, and need only be
practised in particular cases. As for instance, the taste, and the
strength, and the digestive qualities of the flesh of dogs are
mentioned in works on medicine, but it does not therefore follow that
it should be eaten by the wise. In the same way there are some men,
some places and some times, with respect to which these practices can
be made use of. A man should therefore pay regard to the place, to the
time, and to the practice which is to be carried out, as also as to
whether it is agreeable to his nature and to himself, and then he may
or may not practise these things according to circumstances. But after
all, these things being done secretly, and the mind of the man being
fickle, how can it be known what any person will do at any particular
time and for any particular purpose.

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